Menggunakan Jangka Sorong & Mikrometer Sekrup

Bagaimanakah caranya menentukan diameter sebuah kelereng? Bila kita hanya memiliki mistar kita bisa menggunakan cara tidak langsung dengan cara berikut:

Tetapi bila menggunakan alat ukur yang langsung bisa digunakan jangka sorong. Jangka sorong memiliki ketelitian lebih besar dibanding mistar. Selain itu jangka sorong juga memiliki fungsi lebih banyak dibanding mistar. Jangka sorong bisa digunakan untuk mengukur diameter luar tabung, diameter dalam tabung atau bahkan kedalamannya.

Jangka sorong merupakan alat ukur panjang yang lebih teliti dibanding mistar. Jika suatu mistar mempunyai ketelitian 0,5 mm, maka jangka sorong mempunyai ketelitian 0,1 mm atau mungkin juga 0,05 mm. Terdapat berbagai fasilitas jika menggunakan jangka sorong diantaranya mengukur diameter luar dan diameter dalam suatu tabung serta menentukan kedalaman suatu benda.

Jangka sorong dengan ketelitian 0,05 mm memiliki rahang tetap dengan 2 skala panjang, yaitu panjang atas dalam inch dan bawah dalam cm.

Jika rahang tetap dan rahang sorong saling dihimpitkan, angka nol pada rahang tetap dan rahang sorong saling berimpit. angka 10 pada rahang sorong bawah berimpit pada panjang 39 mm pada rahang tetap bagian bawah. Jadi  setiap bagian akan memiliki 39/20 mm = 1,95 mm.


Umumnya ketelitian jangka sorong sudah tertulis di alat tersebut. Berikut adalah contoh cara membaca jangka sorong untuk ketelitian 0,05 mm.


Hasil pengukuran berdasarkan gambar di atas adalah:

Skala utama : 3,2 cm        = 32 mm

Skala nonius : 4 (0,05 mm)  =  0,2 mm

Hasil pengukuran adalah skala utama + skala nonius = 32 mm + 0,2 mm = 32,2 mm.


Perhatikan, skala nonius dikalikan dengan ketelitian jangka sorongnya. Karena pada contoh di atas ketelitian jangka sorong adalah 0,05 mm, maka skala yang berimpit antara skala nonius dengan skala utama yaitu 4 kita kalikan dengan 0,05 mm. Jika kita menggunakan jangka sorong dengan ketelitian 0,02 mm maka kita kalikan dengan 0,02 mm, demikian juga dengan ketelitian jangka sorong yang lain.


Perhatikan contoh skala jangka sorong berikut:


Jika ketelitian jangka sorong adalah 0,05 mm, maka hasil baca skalanya adalah:

= 10 mm + 5 (0,05 mm)

= (10 + 0,25) mm

= 10,25 mm


Selain jangka sorong, alat lain yang perlu dikuasai bagi siswa SMA adalah mikrometer sekrup.



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