Hukum Kirchoff

Ada dua hukum Kirchoff yang akan kita bahas, hukum I Kirchoff dan hukum Kirchoff II. Hukum I Kirchoff menyatakan: “Kuat arus yang masuk pada titik percabangan sama dengan kuat arus yang keluar titik percabangan”.



Hukum II Kirchoff



Untuk menggunakan hukum II Kirchoff pada rangkaian  satu loop langkah-langkahnya adalah sebagai berikut:

1. Buat perumpamaan arah kuat arus, dan perumpamaan arah loop. Jika arah perumpaan kuat arus salah, maka pada hasil hitungan akan bernilai negatif.

2. GGL diberi tanda positif jika putaran loop pertama bertemu kutub positif GGL, dan diberi tanda negatif jika putaran loop pertama bertemu kutub negatif.

3. Kuat arus diberi tanda positif jika sesuai dengan arah putaran loop.


untuk memperjelas dapat dicontohkan seperti berikut:

pada rangkaian di atas arah kuat arus dan arah loop sudah ditentukan. selanjutnya kita gunakan hukum II Kirchoff

-E1 – E2 + I (R1+r1+R2+r2) = 0

-12 – 6 + I (4+0,4+5+0,6)=0

-18 + 10 I = 0

I =18/10 = 1,8 A


Rangkain dengan 2 loop

Dalam rangkaian dengan 2 loop maka digunakan hukum I kirchoff dan hukum II Kirchoff. untuk memperjalas bisa digunakan gambar rangkaian berikut:

Pada titik cabang akan berlaku hukum I Kirchoff :

I1 + I2 = I———————————————————– (1)

Loop I

4 –I3x2 –I1x 4 = 0

4 –2I3 –4I1 = 0

2I3 + 4I1 = 4

I3 + 2I1 = 2 ———————————————– (2)



Loop II

2 –I3x2 –I2x 4 = 0

2 –2I3 –4I2 = 0

2I3 + 4I2 = 2

I3 + 2I2 = 1 ———————————————– (3)

Lakukan substitusi atau eliminasi persamaan (1); (2) dan (3)

misalnya pers(1) dengan (2)

I1 +  I2 = I3 ——————————————————— (1)

I3 + 2I1 = 2 ———————————————– (2)

I3 + 2(I3I2)= 2

3I3 – 2I2= 2 ———————————————–(4)

pers (3) dan (4)

I3 + 2I2 = 1

3I3 – 2I2= 2 

————-  +

4 I3 = 3

I3 = 3/4 =0,75 A

I3 + 2I2 = 1

0,75 + 2I2 = 1

I2 = (1-0,75)/2 = 0,125 A

I1 + I2 = I3

I1 + 0,125 = 0,75

I1 = 0,625 A



Kanginan, Marthen. 2006. Fisika SMA Untuk SMA/MA Kelas X, XI, dan XII. Jakarta : Erlangga.

Pristiadi Utomo, 2007. Fisika Interaktif untuk SMA kelas X, ditulis . Jakarta: Azka Press.

Marteen Kanginan. 2010. Fisika SMA kelas X. Jakarta: Erlangga

RinawanAbadi, dkk. 2009. Buku Panduan Pendidik Fisika untuk SMA/MA untuk kelas X. Klaten: Intan Pariwara.





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